Driving Society Forward.
Speaking about his Diaries and Archiving Material:
‘The Importance of Keeping our History’
at the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) Members’ Day,
on 26th October 2006, 6-7pm.
Held at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), Brunei Gallery, University of London.
Sponsored by Swets and with financial support from CILIP in London Branch.
CILIP Members’ Day Lecture and Reception
The Inspiration of the Benns
Reflections and Report
by Ruth Rikowski
Introduction, Background and Tony and Caroline Benn's Incredible Contribution
Flicking through the CILIP Gazette I noticed that Tony Benn was going to speak at the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) Members’ Day. I was surprised, but also very intrigued, and then became very keen to go. The reasons for this will become clear upon reading this piece, and once the effect that the Benn’s have had on us becomes apparent.
I first heard Tony Benn speak many years ago, when I originally became interested in politics and decided that I was definitely left-wing! I wanted to change the world, to make it a better and fairer place to live in. I hated all the injustice and suffering that I witnessed all around me. I have always been inspired by Tony Benn’s speeches, by his enthusiasm, sincerity, commitment and concern for humanity. He always seemed to me to lighten up the Labour Party and inject it with hope. Thus, it was with great sadness that I witnessed how he tried to steer the Labour Party to the left, at a time when it was so tragically determined to move to the right. The legacy of what happened then, obviously still remains with us today, as we now witness neoliberalism in full flight.
However, it was only in more recent years that my husband, Dr Glenn Rikowski, and myself, got to know Tony and Caroline Benn more as people. This goes back to when Glenn first joined the Hillcole Group, a group of radical left educators, back in 1994. This followed on from incorporation of colleges (he was a college lecturer at the time), new contracts and Glenn being disillusioned with the seeming lack of fight back to it all. The Hillcole Group had been set up by Dave Hill and Mike Cole in 1989, to counteract the Hillgate Group of Radical Right educators. The Hillcole Group had three main missions – to influence policy and decision-making on educational matters; to respond to attacks on the quality of education from the Radical Right and to improve the quality of schooling and teacher education. The Hillcole Group were involved in a number of different public activities, and as Dave Hill says, these included:
…publishing books and booklets, holding conferences, contributing to wider Left events and conferences, establishing a public space and public support for radical left educators, students, and others to identify and interact with, and establishing an emotional and intellectual support and collaborative network for its members (Hill in ‘The Hillcole Group of Radical Left Educators’).
The Hillcole Group consisted of a number of different people (about 20 in all), from a variety of backgrounds. This included (amongst others) Patrick Ainley (who is now Professor of Education and Training at the University of Greenwich), Stephen Ball (who is now the Karl Mannheim Professor of Sociology of Education at the Institute of Education, University of London), Shane Blackman (then a Senior Lecturer in Sociology at Christ Church College, Canterbury), Clyde Chitty (who is now Professor of Policy and Management in Education at Goldsmiths College, University of London), John Clay (then Senior Lecturer in the Department of Primary Education at Brighton University) , Mike Cole (who is now Professor at Bishops Grosseteste College, University College, Lincoln), Imelda Gardiner (a former teacher educator who was a peripatetic teacher), Rosalyn George at Goldsmiths College, Andy Green (now Professor of Education at the Institute of Education, University of London), Dave Hill (who is now Professor of Education Policy at the University of Northampton), Janet Holland (who is now Professor at London South Bank University and joint owner of Tufnell Press), Ken Jones (who is now Professor at Keele University), Meg Maguire (now at King’s College, London), Glenn Rikowski (who is now a Senior Lecturer at the University of Northampton) and Julian Wootton (then a London school teacher).
Caroline Benn was also one of the members (in fact she was one of the nine original members) - Caroline being very involved in left education issues herself and having written a book with Clyde Chitty (1996), entitled Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? At the time of joining the Hillcole Group Caroline was also a Lecturer in Adult Education specialising in Access Course for Entry into Higher Education. Furthermore, she was one of the key campaigners for comprehensive education in the 1960s, although by the 1980s she had to defend comprehensive schools. The ‘Tribute to Caroline Benn’, looks back over Caroline’s contribution to the Hillcole Group, which is on the Hillcole Group website, the first draft of which was written by Glenn. It says:
There is no doubt that Caroline’s insight and vision was the catalyst that expanded the mission of the Hillcole Group substantially during the early to mid-1990s. Whilst she obviously acknowledged the need for critique of education policies that increased social inequality…she also stressed the need to offer alternatives. The Group moved forward on the basis of Caroline’s outlook, and from the mid-1990s we became more confident, less defensive and more forward-looking. She encouraged the Group towards exploring prospects for the new century. The confident stance that Caroline fired generated the confidence to ‘put ourselves on the line’, and to express our shared principles and ideas regarding the foundations of the sort of education system, work organisation and society we all yearned for and believed was necessary for human survival and liberation (Hillcole Group, 2001).
Caroline Benn worked arduously to keep the group focused and together. It was whilst working on the Hillcole book Rethinking Education and Democracy: a socialist alternative for the 21st century that the Group discovered that Caroline had cancer. The Tribute says:
Her courage and fortitude in the face of a life-sapping illness amazed and inspired us to share and develop the full range of Caroline’s wonderful vision for education in the 21st century (Hillcole Group).
Caroline was very keen to not only criticise, but also to seek positive alternatives. Thus, as she wrote with Clyde Chitty, in the conclusion to the Hillcole pamphlet Business, Business, Business:
If we on the Left want to help people to trust in the education service - in exchange for more developments that are on our terms - we have to think these terms out more carefully in order to generate widespread support for an alternative. Every time we criticise changes being made, we must suggest what changes are required instead. It is much harder to do this but that is what the Hillcole Group was formed to do (Benn and Chitty, 1999, pp. 38-39).
Glenn was obviously inspired by Caroline. Yet, it was only a couple of years after joining the Hillcole Group (around 1996), that Glenn found out about Caroline’s illness – he was greatly saddened by this, coming home on the brink of tears, saying that Caroline was living on borrowed time. But she had a great will to live, and kept going for a few years after this, with drugs, against enormous odds.
As Caroline’s health deteriorated some of the Hillcole meetings were held at the Benn’s actual house. Caroline continued to contribute enormously to these meetings.
The ‘Promoting Comprehensive Education for the 21st Century’ Conference held in 2001 (http://www.culturewars.org.uk/2001-02/compconf.htm) was dedicated to the memory of Caroline Benn and as the Tribute on the Hillcole website says:
The vision, insight and determination to struggle to the end of her life for a transformative education for all that opens windows on a socialist future will never be forgotten (Hillcole Group, 2001).
Whilst a member of the Hillcole Group, Glenn was greatly moved by the demonstrations that took place in Seattle in 1999, against the World Trade Organisation (at the WTO Ministerial in Seattle), so much so that he proceeded to write a small book about it (G. Rikowski, 2001), considering the implications of the WTO for education. He wrote it for the Hillcole Group, through Tufnell Press, which published all of the Hillcole publications. He wrote the manuscript at tremendous speed because he wanted to complete it before Caroline died – and he achieved that aim. He sent a draft version of The Battle in Seattle to Caroline. On 31st October 2001, Glenn received a hand-written letter from her. She asked Glenn to excuse the writing because she had written the letter whilst lying on her back in bed. Her comments were encouraging and supportive, as well as providing a critical approach. Part of what she wrote subsequently formed an endorsement of the book, with the words:
It’s a wonderful outline of the new anti-capitalist activity…It pulls together all aspects of changes to all levels of education, as it is drawn into the profit business – and even further away from wider concepts of education (Caroline Benn, Hillcole Group; President of the Socialist Education Association).
When she sadly passed away in 2000, and unfortunately, before the actual publication of The Battle in Seattle, Glenn and I went to her memorial service at Westminster Church, which was absolutely packed. Caroline was a very powerful person in her own right, and this should never be forgotten. Tony Benn wrote a piece about her for A tribute to Caroline Benn edited by Melissa Benn and Clyde Chitty (2004), saying that Caroline was:
…a very remarkable woman, tough-minded and clear, independent in thought and action and with a capacity for caring which impressed itself on everyone she met (T. Benn in M. Benn and Chitty, 2004, p. 19).
I have also met and spoken to the Benn’s and have seen them give a number of speeches. In particular, I spoke to them both at the launch of Rethinking education and democracy: a socialist alternative for the twenty first century by the Hillcole Group (1997) that was held at the Institute of Education, University of London bookshop. I also saw them both speak (actually on the same platform) at a Marxism 2000 conference, at the Institute of Education, University of London which was run by the Socialist Workers Party. I was very moved and impressed by what they both said, focusing around issues on the future of socialism.
Following on from all of this, and having read The Battle in Seattle myself, I started thinking about the implications of the WTO for libraries and information. Originally this was at the suggestion of John Pateman who also read and was inspired by Glenn’s book. At the time, John was the editor of the journal Information for Social Change. The culmination of all this was me writing my first book, entitled Globalisation, Information and Libraries: the implications of the World Trade Organisation’s GATS and TRIPS Agreements (R. Rikowski, 2005).
Thus, in one way and another, the Benn’s have had a very significant, indeed powerful, influence on our lives. We are living proof of how the Benn’s have helped, inspired and supported ordinary people; given that Glenn and I both come from essentially working class backgrounds, and certainly not from backgrounds that encouraged people to write and express their own views. Rather, our backgrounds told us that we should be deferential to writers, creators, artists, and musicians and the like, and certainly not deem to undertake this work ourselves. Whilst our determination has meant that we would have written and published our material no matter what, in all probability, the Benn’s (both directly and indirectly) have given us inspiration, support and encouragement. Perhaps, without Caroline, Glenn would not have produced his first book when he did. And to date, it does still remain his only single-authored book – but we will change that in time. And also Seattle gave me the inspiration to later go on and write my own first single-authored book.
The wonderful qualities that the Benn’s possess should never be under-estimated, as far as I am concerned. The impact of their work, ideas and passion, and their enduring desire to create a better, fairer and kinder world – i.e. to work towards the creation of a socialist world, are incredible. As a society, I think we owe a great debt to the Benn’s. Thus, it was all this background that prompted me to go and hear Tony Benn speak at CILIP Members’ Day.
TONY BENN TALKING AT CILIP MEMBERS' DAY
Introduction by the Chair, Peter Beauchamp, Chair of CILIP in London
The Chair said that surely Tony Benn needs no introduction! Yet, it would be discourteous not to introduce him. So, as he said, Tony Benn has been 50 years in Parliament and 11 years in the Cabinet. He is the longest serving Labour MP in parliament. He held a number of ministerial posts; these being Postmaster General, Minister of Technology, Secretary of State for Industry and Secretary of State for Energy. He was also an elected member of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party from 1959-1994, and he was Chairman of the Party in 1971/2. He finally stood down as MP in 2001 in order to devote more time to politics! He has kept a diary for 62 years, and as an archivist has material going back 71 years.
Tony Benn began by saying that CILIP was a funny name and that it sounds like something that you take and then all your problems will be solved!
Tony Benn highly values libraries, and sees them as being universities which one can be a part of without needing qualifications. They are a record in every way.
He thinks that experience is the best teacher. He gets up at 7am and goes to bed at midnight and learns something. But everyone else is learning something as well, so he goes to bed the next night knowing less! His wit is overwhelming and infectious. I do not think that one could avoid laughing for long, if one was in the presence of Tony Benn for any length of time. I laughed many times throughout his talk at CILIP, as did many other members of the audience.
Tony Benn highlighted 3 important questions:
1. What’s going on?
2. Why is it going on?
3. And what do you think about it?
He said that he is a completely unqualified librarian, but an obsessive archivist. He has kept a diary since he was 9 years old. Yet, some of the wartime diaries were illegal, and some had to be written in code (some are in morse code), which then had to be deciphered. A diary should be written up straightaway, he said, because a diary that is not accurate, is not worth having.
Tony Benn continued, saying that a diary is different from all other forms of information, as one gets
3 bites at the cherry. These are:
1. When it happens
2. Dictating or writing it up
3. Reading it afterwards
Only 10% of his diaries, so far, have been published. These have all been edited by Ruth Winstone, who is a librarian, (she is also the Director for the Centre for the Study of Society and Politics at Kingston University). His talk tonight will be recorded in his diary. He also keeps press releases etc – he is, indeed, a conscientious archivist.
How does he do it, people ask? Is it not a bit obsessive? Well, his father was an old Victorian and said that one should not waste time or money. Whilst his mother was a Congregationalist and made him think that he might have to give an account of his life and what he has been doing on judgement day, so he thought it would be a good idea to keep a diary! Keeping a diary is a discipline. Once he went to sleep when working on his diary. A secretary types up his diary. He does not write it himself – but dictates it to the secretary. Speeches are also dictated. Thus, he communicates by word of mouth, and finds writing a very slow process. His diaries are an accurate account of what actually took place. Sometimes the secretary will ask him whether he wants certain things to go in it. Something might have been misinterpreted, and for this reason the secretary sometimes has to double-check.
A Professor is currently going through his diaries, as he wants to find out more about the International Monetary Fund (IMF) crisis of 1996. All the material is on CD-ROM, so it is very easy to recover. Tony Benn wittingly said that a diary on CD-ROM is also good for alzheimers disease, as there are good search and find facilities. One can retrieve information about who was a particular minister at one point it time, for example, if one wants to.
However, keeping a diary has been very costly for him and he has had to have 5 garages built to house them all in. There is also the problem of changing technologies, and having to record the diaries on the different technologies. There has been the wired recorder, tapes and CD-ROMs. And now we have digitised information. One technology becomes obsolete, and is taken over by another. There is also the conservation problem – the garages get damp sometimes and mice also get in. He did enquire about getting a grant from the British Library for it all, but was told that that is not possible whilst he is still alive! Well, he said that he certainly was not going to ‘pop off’ just to please the British Library!
Central Question: Freedom of Information
Tony Benn said that freedom of information is at the heart of democracy and that knowledge is power. The government wants to control what we know. At one time access to the Bible was suppressed and some people were executed because of this. Tindall, who translated the Bible, was one such person. Perhaps, if Hansard was not already there, MPs might not want it, as this is perhaps rather too much a display of open/transparent government, for many MPs liking! The government wants to know all about us through identity cards, Oyster Cards etc – they can then put all this information about us on databases. This is all very concerning. But the government does not want us to know much about them – that is why we have the Official Secrets Act.
There is, of course, the Freedom of Information Act – but how real is this supposed freedom of information in reality? It is certainly not as good as it should be, Tony said. But are there any real secrets in government? The Budget really is a genuine secret So is the negotiating stance of the government with another government – that is definitely a secret. If this was not kept a secret, then the negotiation would obviously break down. But other than that Tony does not think that there are any real secrets in government.
The free flow of knowledge and information is the core of democracy. Malice and gossip are damaging, but not information. Tony said that he has always been a believer in freedom of information.
Tony then spoke about the relationship between a Minister and her/his Civil Servants and how this affects freedom of information. He said that a minister is locked up with civil servants and that a minister has to make sense of the information that is given to her/him from civil servants. He gave an interesting example here. A civil servant recommended to Tony at one time that the government should accept some new technology and that he should suggest this to the government. However, the cost of it was enormous. In the end, Tony said ‘no’. When Tony asked the civil servant why he was ‘for’ it he said that he did not know anyway. Makes you think and wonder about the value of the civil service sometimes and certainly about how much an MP can trust the information that she/he is given by her/his civil servant. Tony said that he used to argue a lot with the civil service, but that he also had a lot of regard for them. An open approach is good, because it is reassuring to know that your case is being put forward. He said that secrecy in government is adopted for 2 main motives:
1. Ministers do not want people to know how ignorant they are!
2. Civil Servants do not want people to know how much more power they have!
He then made an amusing aside about when he was an MP for Bristol many years ago. He got a letter from one of his constituents. The constituent noted the fact that Russia had got a space shuttle on the moon, but said that could we please now have a decent bus service in Bristol!
Tony Benn has now got 10 grandchildren and they have to make choices that no other generation has had to make. They have the capacity to destroy the human race, but they are also the generation that have the knowledge and capacity to be able to solve all these problems – we could solve the problems of AIDS, for example, if we wanted to.
He ended the talk on that note, saying that he would welcome questions.
Questions – there then followed 15 minutes for questions
Tony Benn was asked a number of different and interesting questions by the audience.
Someone from Brent public libraries spoke about the shortage of resources for public libraries and that now quite a lot of people seemed to be in favour of the idea of charging for using libraries. He asked what Tony’s views were about this. Tony said that libraries should be free and that they are universities for many people. But others, of course, want money for bombs! A bit later on, I followed this up with a question myself, broadening it out to the World Trade Organisation’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), with its agenda for the liberalisation of trade and the threat that this poses to state-funded libraries. I linked it to Glenn’s work and to Caroline Benn. I also mentioned the fact that just 2 days beforehand (on 24th October 2006) I had spoken at Cambridge University, as part of a student campaign against top-up fees, which was organised by ‘Education Not For Sale’. I suggested that it would be good to have a similar ’Libraries Not For Sale’ campaign. Tony quite agreed about the importance of maintaining free public libraries and said that he would support any campaign, such as a ‘Libraries Not For Sale’ campaign, that library workers and others might initiate.
Another person asked what is going to happen to Tony’s diaries when he cannot maintain them any more. Tony said that his son, Josh, will look after them all. They are all indexed and Josh is an expert in this area. Sandra Ward asked – do other politicians admire your writing? And does Tony know whether any other MPs keep diaries? Tony said that Douglas Hurd kept a diary and that David Blunkett did for a while. But that often Prime Ministers want to reinvent their successes and failures – so do not want to keep accurate diaries!
Another person asked Tony his views about why so few young people vote today. Tony said that he does not think it is apathy, but more to do with anger and distrust. And that does not connect to the political process. Other questions included one from Eric Davies from Loughborough University who considered the transparency argument, in regard to freedom of information, and the possible benefits of transparency of the Cabinet, and also Liz Dwiar, from Field Fisher Waterhouse, who asked Tony what the most important national event was that he had ever been to.
Finally, Gill Power asked whether Tony is registered with his local library. Tony said that he did not know that one had to be registered! That caused a bit of a stir amongst the audience! He said that for him, books were mainly for reference. He does not read much, other than for that purpose. He then spoke about the old tradition of the librarian, as being the guardian of books, and that sometimes there can be a rather old-fashioned, somewhat ‘stand-offish’ image of the librarian. He spoke about the House of Commons library and the high, uninviting desk that there is in it and that it can give the impression that the members of staff in the library think you are going to cause trouble! He said that it might be helpful if librarians were more like consultants.
Chair: The Chair, Peter Beauchamp, thanked those members of the London Committee CILIP who organised the event. This included Monica Blake, Stephen Cook, Isobel Thompson and Ralph Adam. Jill Martin, Branch Liaison Officer of London CILIP and Director Knowledge and Information, CILIP also provided a lot of assistance.
Closing Address by Martin Molloy, President of CILIP
The closing address was by Martin Molloy, the President of CILIP. Martin Molloy said that MPs do not figure in his life much. Furthermore, he actually received 3 letters from CILIP members asking him why CILIP had invited Tony to a library talk! But Martin said that Tony gives the lie to the media story and that everyone is charmed by him. Martin comes from Chesterfield, and so Tony was his MP. Martin said that Tony is unfailingly kind and courteous. Also, Tony ‘saved his bacon’ once, and stopped him from being ejected from the House of Commons. Furthermore, Hilary Benn gave Martin’s daughters a wonderful time on one occasion a while ago. Martin was delighted that Tony was able to come and speak to CILIP Members’ on Members’ day.
All this was followed by a lovely meal and a chance for CILIP members to socialise.
END OF CILIP EVENT
Further reflections and a look toward the future
I was very inspired by Tony’s talk at CILIP Members’ Day, as I always am, whenever I have heard him speak. He is, as far as I am concerned, an incredibly moving and uplifting speaker – and such people are now becoming a dying breed. He is able to relate to the audience so well, and is also always very humorous. And of course, for me personally, he always offers hope that, indeed, a better, brighter, kinder and fairer world is possible. Having listened to his talk, I came away with a better understanding about why he writes his diaries, and why he continues to write them so meticulously. As he says, it is a discipline; it becomes a habit and it provides an historical record.
But for Tony Benn, in particular, I think there is an additional, very important reason. This is that he wants to put on record the truth, as much as he is able to, particularly in regard to all the happenings that went on in the House of Commons when he was an MP, and when he was a minister. I think he wants to try to overcome/get beyond some of the many lies and manipulations that take place in politics. He did not say this directly, but this was the impression that I was definitely given. He seeks to produce an honest record of events and made the point several times in his talk, about the importance of keeping accurate records – recording accurately what this person, and that person said. With this accurate record, people can then look back and follow the debate, and then make up their own mind about the outcome, and whether it was the just and right outcome etc! I got the impression that he thinks and hopes that once he is dead, people might look at his diaries in a different light, and truth might start to prevail more, as history unfolds. He made the point more than once that the diaries are there now, as a record, and will be made available for people as and when they want them. Also his son Josh will be looking after them all when he has died. Hopefully, in the future, Josh will be able to get more of them published. In the fullness of time, I think that the benefits of Tony’s diaries will be even more fully appreciated, and will help to make a really significant contribution to help us to move beyond capitalism.
The following quote by Tony Benn (which I found very recently in Wikipedia and comes from his diaries Out of the wilderness), convinced me that this was probably one of his main motivations (even though he did not say this explicitly in his talk). Thus, in Out of the wilderness Tony said:
As a minister, I experienced the power of industrialists and bankers to get their way by use of the crudest form of economic pressure, even blackmail, against a Labour Government. Compared to this, the pressure brought to bear in industrial disputes is minuscule. This power was revealed even more clearly in 1976 when the IMF secured cuts in our public expenditure. These lessons led me to the conclusion that Britain is only superficially governed by MPs and the voters who elect them. Parliamentary democracy is, in truth, little more than a means of securing a periodical change in the management team, which is then allowed to preside over a system that remains in essence intact. If the British people were ever to ask themselves what power they truly enjoyed under our political system they would be amazed to discover how little it is, and some new Chartist agitation might be born and might quickly gather momentum. (T. Benn, 1987)
In conclusion, as Glenn and I make continued and persistent efforts to get our work more widely known, distributed, read and understood, I hope that this event, in itself, will help to raise awareness about our work still further, and that, indeed, it will encourage the library and information profession, in particular, to take further action against the World Trade Organisation’s agenda for libraries and information. I do not think that the profession can afford to be complacent. The trade agenda continues; the juggernaut seems unstoppable. Even though there have been some the difficulties in the Doha Round over the last few months, for example,capitalism will always find ways round all such problems. We need to be proactive in order to try to change the tide.
Given all this, I hope that the profession can now carry forward some of the work of the Benn’s, including their belief in free public libraries that are available to all and the importance of freedom of information. And this can obviously include working through both Glenn and myself, as we seek to defend public services and values outside of the profit and marketisation agenda, and move forward the aims that the Benn’s have always campaigned so vigorously for, which coincides with some of the principles that the library and information believes in. As the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) says in regard to libraries being ‘public goods’, for example:
Libraries are a public good. They are unique organizations dedicated to providing the broadest range of information and ideas to the public, regardless of age, religion, physical and mental health, social status, race, gender or language. The long-established library tradition of intellectual freedom and equitable access to information and cultural expression form the basis for ensuring that library goals are achieved. (IFLA, 2001)
Let us then seek to defend and build on our libraries and all that they have to offer, as well as seeking to defend our state education system, and indeed, all the other public services that we value so dearly.
I would also like, personally, to thank CILIP for organising this event, for showing such respect for Tony and for playing some small part in helping to try to dispel the unfair media propaganda that Tony Benn has suffered from over so many years.
Glenn Rikowski has asked me to note the fact that his own mother died about one year before Caroline died. Going through the natural grieving process for his mother was difficult for him, but drafting the tribute to Caroline Benn helped enormously in this regard. He had and always will have a great admiration and respect for Caroline, and indeed, for the Benn’s in general, and will always be indebted to Caroline for reading the draft manuscript of his book, The Battle in Seattle, on her sick bed. Really, his main aim was to write the book for her – so that she knew very clearly right to the end that there were people out there that were trying hard to halt the seemingly unstoppable drive for the continued marketisation of education. He desperately wanted her to be able to be able to read it before she died, so he wrote it at speed, and has always been so very happy that he was able to achieve that aim.
I would like to dedicate this article to Caroline Benn.
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Tony Benn, (1987) Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963-7: Introduction, Hutchinson
Benn, Tony (1996) The Benn Diaries, 1940-1990, Arrow (edited by Ruth Winstone) http://www.amazon.co.uk/Benn-Diaries-1940-90-Tony/dp/0099634112/sr=1-3/qid=1162106811/ref=sr_1_3/026-6260269-3891667?ie=UTF8&s=books
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Benn, Tony (2003) The Benn Tapes 2 [Audiobook] (Audio CD), Arrow http://www.amazon.co.uk/Benn-Tapes-1-Tony/dp/0563494921/sr=1-7/qid=1162107322/ref=sr_1_7/026-6260269-3891667?ie=UTF8&s=books
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http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:kiI_uo3Rb2EJ:www.cla.ca/resources/ifla_wto.pdf+ifla+and+public+good&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=3&ie=UTF-8 (accessed 31/10/06)
Powell, David and Benn, Tony (2001) Tony Benn: a political life, Continuum International Publishing Ltd http://www.amazon.co.uk/Tony-Benn-Political-David-Powell/dp/0826456995/sr=1-2/qid=1162197725/ref=sr_1_2/026-6260269-3891667?ie=UTF8&s=books
Rikowski, Glenn (2001) The Battle in Seattle, London: The Tufnell Press The Battle in Seattle
Rikowski, Ruth (2005) Globalisation, Information and Libraries: the implications of the World Trade Organisation’s GATS and TRIPS Agreements, Chandos Publishing: Oxford
Globalisation, Information and Libraries
Cambridge Occupation of a Lecture Theatre
Cambridge Education Not for Sale - Students Occupy a Lecture Theatre
Indymedia report and pictures of the Teach-In
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CILIP Home Page
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals Members’ Day and AGM
CILIP AGM 2006
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Information for Social Change
Institute for Education Policy Studies: the Independent Radical Left Education Policy Unit
Tony Benn Biography
Tony Benn Biography
Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia – page about Tony Benn Wikipedia on Tony Benn
Ruth Rikowski, London, 31st October 2006
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